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Prions

Published: Apr-2016 | Format: PDF | Research Impact Technologies | Number of pages: 574 | Code: MRS - 28959


Prions Market Research report gives an insight into the global market for Prion Deactivation technologies, Post Mort em Testing for BSE and Prion Reduction Filters. The Prion related products include BSE detection test Kits, Deactivation/Inactivation technologies, Reagents and Services. The study includes estimations and predictions for the global BSE Post Mortem Testing Market. Prions market size  is also analyzed by geographic regions encompassing North America, Europe, Japan and Rest of World. The Prions marketreport serves as a complete guide to global Prion Detection, Reduction and Inactivation Market covering more than 230 companies that are engaged in research for development of antemortem BSE and CJD test kits, development and supply of BSE Test kits and development of prion Reduction Filters. Information related to recent product releases, product developments, partnerships, collaborations, and mergers and acquisitions is also covered in the report.


Table of Content

I. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
1.1 Scope of the Study
1.2 Research Methodology
1.3 Units and Currency

2. REPORT SYNOPSIS
2.1 Prions
Introduction
Exhibit 1. Mammalian Agents of Spongiform Encephalopathies, ICTVdb Code, Disease Name, Natural Host, Prion Name and PrP Iso Form
Special Characteristics of Prions
Structure and Organization of Prions
Hypothesis
Prion Replication
Prion Diseases
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy
Characteristics of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Exhibit 2. History of BSE
CJD
Major Types of CJD
Sporadic CJD
Hereditary CJD
Iatrogenic CJD
Variant CJD
Relationship between CJD and BSE
Scrapie
Kuru
Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME)
Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE)
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker Syndrome (GSS)
Control of prion Disease
Animal Feed
Animal Feed Regulations
Concern for Quality of Feed Ingredients with Increase in BSE around the World
Eurofins Forms Strategic Alliance with VLA in UK to Maintain Feed Safety
Plan on Ban of certain Cattle Material from Medical Products to Protect Against BSE
Role of WHO in TSE Control
Role of OIE
Prion Inactivation
Prion Disease Testing
2.2 Prions - Global Market Analysis
Exhibit 3. Prion Deactivation Technologies - Global MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) in US$ Million
Exhibit 4. Prion Reduction Filters - Global MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) in US$ Million
Exhibit 5. BSE Post Mortem Testing - Global MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) in US$ Million
Exhibit 6. List of Global Major Prions Companies

3. MARKET DYNAMICS
3.1 World Cattle Demographics
Exhibit 7. World Cattle Population (2000-2014)By Geographic Regions for North America, Europe, Japan and Rest of World in Million Head
3.2 Market Overview
3.3 Prion Deactivation Technologies
3.3.1 Global Prion Deactivation Technologies Market Analysis
Exhibit 8. Prion Deactivation Technologies - Global MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Regions for North America, Europe, Japan and Rest of World in US$ Million
Exhibit 9. Prion Deactivation Technologies - Global Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Regions for North America, Europe, Japan and Rest of World
3.3.2 North American Prion Deactivation Technologies Market Analysis
Exhibit 10. Prion Deactivation Technologies - North American MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Region for Canada and United States in US$ Million
Exhibit 11. Prion Deactivation Technologies - North American Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Canada and United States
3.3.3 European Prion Deactivation Technologies Market
Exhibit 12. Prion Deactivation Technologies - European MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Region for United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million
Exhibit 13. Prion Deactivation Technologies - European Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Russia and Rest of Europe
3.3.4 Japanese Prion Deactivation Technologies Market
Exhibit 14. Prion Deactivation Technologies - Japanese MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) in US$ Million
3.3.5 Rest of World Prion Deactivation Technologies Market
Exhibit 15. Prion Deactivation TechnologiesRest of World MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Region for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million
Exhibit 16. Prion Deactivation Technologies - Rest of World Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries
3.4 Prion Reduction Filters
3.4.1 Global Prion Reduction Filters Market Analysis
Exhibit 17. Prion Reduction Filters - Global MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Regions for Europe, North America, Japan and Rest of World in US$ Million
Exhibit 18. Prion Reduction Filters - Global Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Europe, North America, Japan and Rest of World
3.4.2 North American Prion Reduction Filters Market
Exhibit 19. Prion Reduction Filters - North American MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Region for Canada and United States in US$ Million
Exhibit 20. Prion Reduction Filters - North American Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Canada and United States
3.4.3 European Prion Reduction Filters Market
Exhibit 21. Prion Reduction Filters - European MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Regions for United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million
Exhibit 22. Prion Reduction Filters - European Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Russia and Rest of Europe
3.4.4 Japanese Prion Reduction Filters Market
Exhibit 23. Prion Reduction Filters - Japanese MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) in US$ Million
3.4.5 Rest of World Prion Reduction Filters Market
Exhibit 24. Prion Reduction Filters - Rest of World MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Region for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million
Exhibit 25. Prion Reduction FiltersRest of World Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for by Geographic Region for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries
3.5 BSE Post Mortem Testing
3.5.1 Global BSE Post Mortem Testing Market Analysis
Exhibit 26. BSE Post Mortem Testing - Global MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Regions for Europe, North America, Japan and Rest of World in US$ Million
Exhibit 27. BSE Post Mortem Testing - Global Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Europe, North America, Japan and Rest of World
Exhibit 28. List of Countries with BSE Risk Status
3.5.2 North American BSE Post Mortem Testing Market
Exhibit 29. BSE Post Mortem Testing - North American MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Region for Canada and United States in US$ Million
Exhibit 30. BSE Post Mortem Testing - North American Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Canada and United States
Exhibit 31. Number of Confirmed BSE cases in North America (2000 and before2013)
US Allocation of Funds for Food Safety and BSE Research
Harmonization of BSE Management Policies by United States, Canada, and Mexico
Upgrading of BSE Risk Status
3.5.3 European BSE Post Mortem Testing Market
Exhibit 32. BSE Post Mortem Testing - European MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) by Geographic Regions for United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million
Exhibit 33. BSE Post Mortem Testing - European Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Russia and Rest of Europe
Exhibit 34. Number of Confirmed BSE cases in European Countries (2000 and before2013)
Market Overview
European Cattle Demographics
Exhibit 35. CattleEuropean Population (2000-2010) by Countries for UK, France, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany and Rest of Europe in Million Head
European Policies on BSE
EU Commissions Latest Proposal Reduces BSE Testing Costs
BSE Cases in the United Kingdom
Measures Taken by United Kingdom to Control BSE
Swiss Beef Industry Awarded for Managing BSE
Germany to Modify BSE Testing Regulations
New Case of Mad Cow Disease Reported in the Netherlands
Slovenian Authorities Confirm BSE Case Findings
August 2005, Third Case of Mad Cow Reported in Austria
3.5.4 Japanese BSE Post Mortem Testing Market
Exhibit 36. BSE Post Mortem Testing - Japanese MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) in US$ Million
Exhibit 37. Number of Confirmed BSE Cases in Japan (2000 and before2013)
37th BSE Case Reported in Japan
BSE Cases Reported in Japan
Health Ministry Bans Blood Donations in Japan
A New Amendment Proposed by USDA on Import of Boneless Beef from Japan
Japan Re-enforces US Beef Ban
3.5.5 Rest of World BSE Post Mortem Testing Market
Exhibit 38. BSE Post Mortem Testing - Rest of World MarketHistoric, Current, and Forecast (2010 - 2022) Geographic Region for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million
Exhibit 39. BSE Post Mortem Testing - Rest of World Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Geographic Region for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million
Exhibit 40. Number of Confirmed BSE Cases in Rest of World (2000 and before2013)
3.6 Beef MarketAn Overview
US Beef Consumption
Exhibit 41. Beef ConsumptionUnited States (2004-2014) in Billion Pounds
US Beef Production
Exhibit 42. Beef ProductionUnited States Commercial Carcass Weight (2004-2014) in Billion Pounds
US Beef Exports
Exhibit 43. Beef ExportsUnited States Commercial Carcass Weight (2004-2014) in Million Pounds
Exhibit 44. Beef ExportsUnited States (2004-2014) in US$ Million
Canadian Beef Markets
Exhibit 45. Beef Products - Canadian Exports (2004-2014) for Live Animal and Beef CAN$ Million
Exhibit 46. United States CattleImports from Canada and Other Countries (2004-2014) in Heads
Exhibit 47. United States Beef and Veal Imports from Canada and Other Countries (2004-2014) in Billion Pounds
Bison in Demand after BSE Crisis
Confirmed BSE Cases in North America
1997 Canada Feed Ban
Prevalence of BSE in Canada
U$39.8 Million to Alberta for New Feed Regulation Implementation
New Regulations for Animal Feed in Canada
Beef Industry in Canada Granted Class Action Suit of Compensation
Safer Designation for Canadian Cattle from World Organization for Animal Health
New Network of Excellence Centers to Study Prion Diseases
Control Measures to Prevent Spread of BSE
Control Measures to Prevent Transmission of BSE to Human
Canada Amends BSE Infection Control Regulations for US Imports
Exhibit 48. BSE Cases Diagnosed in North America (1993-2012)
3.7 PrionsMarket Outlook

4. COMPETITOR DYNAMICS
4.1 Major Companies in Prions Market
Analytik Jena AG (Germany)
Beckman Coulter, Inc. (USA)
Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (USA)
Cayman Chemical Company (USA)
Covance, Inc. (USA)
EMD Millipore (USA)
Enfer Scientific (Ireland)
Eurofins Scientific SA (France)
Eurogentec SA (Belgium)
Gene Thera, Inc. (USA)
GenWay Biotech, Inc. (USA)
IdentiGEN Ltd. (Ireland)
IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. (USA)
Meridian Life Science, Inc. (USA)
Microsens Biotechnologies (UK)
Neogen Corporation (USA)
Pall Corporation (USA)
ProMetic Life Sciences, Inc. (Canada)
Proteome Sciences plc (UK)
R-Biopharm AG (Germany)
ScheBoBiotech AG (Germany)
VMRD, Inc. (Veterinary Medical Research & Development) (USA)
4.2 Major Activities in Prions Industry
Bayer HealthCare Expands Animal Health Research Capacity
IDEXX Laboratories Acquires Madasa do Brasil Ltda.
Bayer HealthCare Acquires Tevas U.S Animal Health Business
Macopharma Successfully Completes P-Capt Prion Studies
ProMetic Life Sciences in Association with Nantpharma Develops and Commercializes Plasma-Derived Biopharmaceuticals
Amorfix Collaborates with Global Leader in Prion Diagnostic Research
US$13.5 million Neurodegenerative Biomarker Consortium to be Lead by Karolinska
Scripps Scientists Discover Single Prion Protein Responsible for Neuronal Death
More.

5. PRODUCT /TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH
5.1 Introduction
Introduction
Prions
Prions Formation
Structure and Properties of Prion Proteins
Prion Protein Diversity
Isoforms
Characteristics of Prions
Exhibit 49. Comparison of General Characteristics of Classic Virus and Prions
Prion Biosynthesis
Prions Replication
Prion Strains
Species Barrier
Cancer and Prions
Prion Vaccines
Approach to Prevent and Control the Spread of Prion Diseases in Human Beings
Methods to Control the Cause of BSE and Scrapies
Methods for Controlling the Transmission of Prions via Human Plasma Derivatives
Diseases Caused by Prions
Exhibit 50. Diseases caused by Prions in Animals
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)
Exhibit 51. List of Prion Diseases and Pathogenesis in Humans
Exhibit 52. List of Prion Disease and Pathogenesis in Animals
Characteristics of TSE
Genetics
Epidemiology
Research to Treat Prion Diseases
Mechanism of Conversion of PrPC to PrPSc
Transmission and Causes of Prion Diseases
Mechanism of the Prion Diseases
Analysis of Pentosan Polysulphate for Treating Prion Diseases
Difficulty Posed by Blood Brain Barrier
Species Barriers for Prions
Efforts to Control TSE Related Diseases
Effect of TSE Related Diseases on Biopharmaceutical Industry
Development of In Vitro Diagnostics Polyclonals Free from Pathogen of Scrapie and BSE
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Source of the Epidemic
Causes
Cases of BSE
Measures to Prevent the Spread of BSE
BSE Testing
Ante-Mortem Assays
Regulations
BSE/TSEs Testing Regulations Imposed by European Union
Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME)
TME Related Diseases
Clinical Characteristics of TME Infected Animals
Diagnosis
Prevalence of the Disease
Scrapie
History
Introduction
Epidemiology and Transmission
Signs & Symptoms
Wool Manufacturing ProcessAn Effective Route of BSE Propagation
Research
Diagnosis of Scrapie
Immunohistochemical (IHC) Detection
Eradication Program
Exhibit 53. Number of Confirmed Scrapie Cases Reported in Great Britain (1993-2014)
Scrapie Cases Reported
Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE)
Cause
Common Breeding Age and Occurrence
Common Symptoms
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Research
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
History
Major Consequences of CWD Prevalence
Causative Agent
Clinical Duration
Characteristics of Chronic Wasting Disease
Diagnosis
Development of Aptamer Beacons for Ante-Mortem Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease
Epidemiology
Distribution
Prevention & Control Strategies
Kuru
Introduction
Transmission
Diagnosis
Treatment
Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker Syndrome (GSS)
Cause
Symptoms
Prognosis
Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease
Symptoms of CJD
Transmission of CJD
Precautions to Control Spreading of the Disease
Research
CJD-Types and Characteristics
Sporadic CJD
Diagnosis
Variant CJD (vCJD)
Definition
Origin of vCJD
Differences between spCJD and vCJD
Differences between Classic and Variant CJD
Prevalence of vCJD
Diagnosis
Genetic CJD
Diagnosis
Iatrogenic CJD
Diagnosis
EEG (Electroencephalography)
Biomarkers
Exhibit 54. Worldwide Number of Reported Cases of vCJD by Country (2012)
Exhibit 55. Referrals of Suspect CJD, Deaths of Definite and Probable CJD in United Kingdom
CJD Control Measures in United Kingdom and United States
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Treatment
Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI)
History
Pathophysiology of Disease
Disease Progression
Treatment
Common Symptoms and Time Duration Observed in FFI
Diagnosis
Prions Detection Technologies
Immunocapillary Electrophoresis
Heartbeat Clue to Diagnosing vCJD
Conformation Dependent Immunoassay (CDI)
Merits of CDI
Sensitivity
Immunoblot (IB)
Immunoblot Analysis
Histopathology and Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry
Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA)
The PMCA Assay
Amplification of rPrPC to rPrPSc in vitro
Amplification Technique Improves Prospects for Diagnostic Tests
Western Blot Assay for TSE
Synthetic Ligands
A Protein-Binding Ligand System for Prion Disease Detection
Blood Testing for the Prion Disease Agent
Immuno-PCR
Biomarkers for Detection of Prions (Surrogate Markers)
Prion Infection
Surrogate Markers
Other Assays for Diagnosis of Prion Diseases
Platelia Test (ELISA, BioRad)
Detection
Enfer test (ELISA, Enfer)
Prionics-Check LIA (ELISA, Prionics AG)
CDI (Inpro)
Histoblot
Paraffin-Embedded Tissue (PET) Blot
Genotyping PrP
ELISA and DELFIA
Rapid Assay
Advantages of this method
RNA Aptamers and Prion Proteins
Animal Bioassays and Cell Culture Assays
5.2 Prion Decontamination and Inactivation Techniques
General Methods of Decontamination
Facility Issues
Device Issues
Novel Methods to Restrict Decontamination of Surgical Instruments
Enzyme-Detergent Method to Sterilize Prions
Latest Methodologies Restricting the Infections Caused by Prion-Contaminated Medical Appliances
Available Alternatives or Methodologies
Conditions Normally Used for Inactivating Prions
Conclusion
Analysis
Clearance Studies
Prion Clearance Studies
Prion Inactivation and Removal
Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease
Bovine Components
Sanitization of Prion
EMEA Clearance
Effective Mode Prion Clearance
The Regulatory Environment
The Nature of the Agent
Spiking Agents
Yardsticks for Clearance
Investigative Steps
Inactivation Techniques
Exhibit 56. Ineffective or Unreliable Methods of Eradicating Prions
Conventional Methods for Inactivation of Prions
Use of NaOH and NaOCl for Chemical Disinfection
Techniques for Inactivation of Prions in Reusable Instruments and Surfaces
Application of Maillard Reaction to Minimize Prion Activation
ViruSure
Evaluation Protocol
Evaluation Process
Criteria for Submission of Dossier
Pre-Evaluation Assessment
Criteria for Admission to Full Evaluation
5.3 Prion Reduction Filters
Core Concerns
TSE Transmission via Blood
Filters to Facilitate Reduction in Prion Proteins
The Effectiveness of the Pall Corporation Filter
UKBS Approach to Filters
Experimental Models for Endogenous Infectivity in Blood
Donor Species
Prion Strain
Method to Detect Infectivity/PrPSc
Advice Sought From the Committee
Post Mortem BSE Testing
IDEXX HerdChek Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Antigen Test Kit EIA
Description and Principles
Parts of the Kit
Sampling and Preparation
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Preparation of Reagents
Wash Solutions 1 and 2
Plate Diluent Component 2
Working Plate Diluent
Negative and Positive Controls
HRPO-Conjugated Anti-PrP Antibody Solution
Acid Stop Solution
Test Procedure
Assay Protocols
Sample Dilution in Working Plate Diluent
Use of Plate Shaker for Sample Incubation ProtocolsShort and Ultra-short
Results
Precautions
Safety Information
Enfer TSE assay
Principle
Buffers
Merits
Prionics-Check WESTERN
Method
Merits
Prionics-Check LIA
Method
Merits
Prionics-Check PrioSTRIP
Method
Merits
Post Mortem CWD Diagnosis
Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay
Principle
Protocol of EIA
Merits of EIA
Efficacy of EIA
5.4 Prions Risk Assessment
Measuring Risks Related to Prions
Prion Diseases Management Policies
Health Control Policies in UK
European Union and BSE controls
Exhibit 57. EU Preventing the Introduction and Spread of BSE
Japan and BSE
FDAs Qualitative Risk Assessment
Modes for Transmission of Prions through Cosmetics
Identification of Hazard
Dose-Response Assessment
Characterization of Risk
Inferences
Guidance on Minimizing the Risk of Transmitting Animal Spongiform Encephalopathies via Human and Veterinary Medicinal Products
Regulatory Compliance
Risk Assessment
Legal Aspects
Clarification
Scope of the Note for Guidance
Relevant Animal Species
Materials
Seed lots, Cell Banks and Routine Fermentation/Production
General Considerations
Scientific Principles for Minimizing Risk
Source Animals
Geographical Sourcing
Bovine Materials
European Commission Scientific Steering Committee Classification
Sheep and Goats (Small Ruminants)
BSE Negligible Risk (Closed) Bovine Herds
Parts of Animal Bodies, Body Fluids and Secretions as Starting Materials
Age of Animals
Manufacturing Process
Cleaning Process
Validation
Risk/Benefit Evaluation
Specific Considerations
Collagen
Structural Protein
Function of Collagen in the Human Body
Safety Measures Offered by Collagen
Clinical Perseverance of Collagen Product
Enhanced Performance
Superior Flexibility
Products Derived from Collagen and its Multiple Biomedical Applications
Procedure Followed in the Extraction of Collagen
Properties and Characteristics of Atelocollagen
Additional Characteristics of Atelocollagen
Processing of Atelocollagen to Desired Configurations
Mutable Characteristics of Available Atelocollagen
Superior Quality of KOKEN Atelocollagen
KOKEN Atelocollagen is Absolutely Safe
Application of Collagen in Various Biomedical Applications
Application in Clinical Medicine
Tissue Culture Research
Cosmetics
KOKEN Special-Purpose Atelocollagen Design
Gelatin
The source material that has been used.
Manufacturing methods
Bovine Blood Derivatives
Traceability
Geographical origin
Stunning Methods
Tallow Derivatives
Animal Charcoal
Milk and Milk Derivatives
Wool Derivatives
Amino Acids
Product Trends
A New Fluorescent Molecule Effective in Diagnosing Prion Disease
New Test to Detect Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
HematechCompany Develops New BSE Resistant Cow
5.5 Recent Progress in Prion Research
Blood Test to Find Fatal variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease
Prion like Proteins Helps to Create Long-Term Memories
Understanding the Life of Prion Molecules
Shape of Infectious Prions
CreutzfeldtJakob Disease can be Transmitted by Blood
1 in 2,000 People in UK Carry Variant CJD Proteins
Recombinant Human Prion Protein
Prion like Proteins Dispel many Diseases of Aging
New Models developed to further the study of Human Prion Diseases
Role of HSPG Receptors in the Spread of Misfolded Proteins
Ribosomes New Target for Antiprion Medicines
New Method to Protect Prion Protein from Changing Shape and Becoming Infectious
Flexible Tail of Prion Protein found to Damage Brain Cells
A likely Treatment for Prion Disease in Humans
CJD May be Manifested as Rapid Hearing Loss
Iron Metabolism Controlled by Normal Prion Protein
More Disease Causing Proteins in Brain Disorders
Protective Prion Stimulates Transition in Yeast Cells
Adaptation of Infectious Prions to Multiple Hosts
More

6. CORPORATE DIRECTORY

7. PATENTS

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